News and Views on Appellate Matters


The workers’ compensation system resulted from a “Grand Bargain” between

employees and employers. One aspect of this bargain is that an employee’s negligence

leading to injury should not bar the employee’s workers’ compensation claim.

Notwithstanding this fundamental principle, an employee’s mere negligence can thwart a

workers’ compensation award.

In Layne v. Crist Electrical Contractor, Inc., 64 Va. App. 342, 768 S.E.2d 261

(2015), the Court of Appeals addressed the case of an employee who was injured while

installing electrical conduit inside a building from a scissor lift. The employer’s “lockout

tagout” rule required the employee to render a “bridge crane” inoperable before using the

lift. The evidence showed that the employee knew of the rule and had followed it the

morning of the day of the accident. Later that morning, however, the employee used the

lift without disabling the crane. The crane struck the lift, and both it and the employee fell

to the floor. The employee suffered suffered brain damage and was unable to testify in

support of his workers’ compensation claim.

By statute, Virginia bars a workers’ compensation award for injury arising from

“The employee’s willful breach of any reasonable rule . . . adopted by the employer and

brought, prior to the accident, to the knowledge of the employee.” An employer relying on

this statute has the burden of proof. The Workers’ Compensation Commission found that

the Layne employer had carried its burden and thus denied the employee’s claim.

On appeal, the Court of Appeals discussed (i) a 1934 Supreme Court case which

requires an employer to prove that an employee, “knowing the rule, . . . intentionally

performed the forbidden act” and (ii) a 2011 Supreme Court case which defines the

adverb “intentionally” as “To do something purposely and not accidentally.” The Court of

Appeals explained its affirmance of the Commission’s decision as follows:

Based on the stark difference between claimant’s past conduct complying with employer’s workplace safety rule and the evidence of claimant’s clear disregard of all of the components of this same workplace safety rule directly prior to the accident, the full commission could reasonably infer that claimant deliberately decided not to lock out the bridge crane before beginning work on the lift — an action that was forbidden by employer.

Layne is just one example of decisions that cause enduring consternation in

lawyers for workers’ compensation claimants. In Layne, the “forbidden conduct” was

using the scissor lift without disabling the bridge crane. There was no direct evidence of

the employee’s state of mind. It may be assumed for the sake of argument that the

employer’s circumstantial evidence supported the conclusion that the employee

“purposely and not accidentally” engaged in the forbidden conduct. However, the very

same circumstantial evidence just as strongly supported the conclusion that the employee

simply forgot to disable the crane. If a party with the burden of proof on an issue presents

evidence in equipoise on the issue, the party has failed to carry its burden.

Have you been injured on the job? Call HammondTownsend.

With over 45 years of combined experience handling Workers’ Compensation claims, our attorneys have recovered over $3 Billion for injured workers. As an exclusive injured workers law firm, our team fights for the compensation you deserve!

We are THE Virginia Workers’ Compensation Law Firm. Serving injured workers across the state of Virginia: Northern Virginia, Richmond, Roanoke, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, and Hampton Roads.

Contact us for a FREE case evaluation.

Scroll to Top